Struggle for National Democracy

Ruis, gepost door: Veroushka Benedicto op 20/06/2014 06:03:11

Wanneer: 20/06/2014 - 14:39

This book by Jose Maria Sison is a historical record of the legal struggle for national liberation and democracy against U.S. imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat capitalism in the 60s and early 70s. It was the principal legal study material in discussion groups and schools of national democracy which educated the youth cadres and militants from 1967 through the First Quarter Storm of 1970 to the declaration of martial law in 1972.

This book was the direct precursor of Philippine Society and Revolution. As a matter of fact, the two books were like partners in the education of cadres and mass activists in the course of the First Quarter Storm of 1970.

Political Parties around the world advocating National Democracy:

[1] National Democratic Party of Germany

The National Democratic Party of Germany (German: Nationaldemokratische Partei Deutschlands, NPD), is a far-right political party in Germany. It was founded in 1964 as successor to the German Reich Party (German: Deutsche Reichspartei, DRP). Party statements also self-identify the party as Germany's "only significant patriotic force". On 1 January 2011, the far-right German People's Union (German: Deutsche Volksunion) merged with the NPD and the party name of the National Democratic Party of Germany was extended by the addition of "The People's Union".

The party is usually described as a neo-Nazi organization, and has been referred to as "the most significant neo-Nazi party to emerge after 1945".The German Federal Agency for Civic Education, or BPB, has criticized the NPD for working with members of organizations which were later found unconstitutional by the federal courts and disbanded, while the German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution, the Bundesamt für Verfassungsschutz, classifies the NPD as a "threat to the constitutional order" because of its platform and philosophy, and it is under their observation. The NPD rejects this depiction, viewing it an attempt to discredit their politics. An effort to outlaw the party failed in 2003.

[2] National Democracy (Spain)

National Democracy (Spanish: Democracia Nacional, DN) is a far right political party in Spain, founded in 1995. It is modeled on the Front National (FN) of France, and grew indirectly out of several defunct parties like the CEDADE group and Juntas Españolas. Its leader is Manuel Canduela Serrano, a former member of Accion Radical, a group active in the Valencian Community. He was also a vocalist in the so-called identity rock group Division 250.

In the 2004 general election, the party got 15,180 votes throughout Spain, amounting to 0.06% of the total vote. In the 2008 general election, it got 12,588 votes, amounting to 0.05% of the vote. That dropped to 0.01% of the vote in the 2011 general election, with 1,876 votes.

[3] National Democratic Party (Argentina)

The National Democratic Party, or Partido Demócrata Nacional (PDN) was an Argentine conservative party created in 1931 which disappeared after 1955. It was generally known simply as the Conservative Party, or Partido Conservador.

Along the Antipersonalist Radical Civic Union (UCR-A) and the Independent Socialist Party (PSI) it was a part of the Concordancia, a coalition government that ruled between 1932 and 1943, a period of Argentine History known as the "Infamous Decade", characterised by massive voter fraud.

Among its leading figures were Robustiano Patrón Costas, Julio Argentino Pascual Roca, Manuel Fresco and Rodolfo Moreno. Ramón S. Castillo, Vice-President to Roberto María Ortiz, who went to serve as acting President between 1940 and 1942, and later as President until June 4, 1943, was a member of this party.

After the "Revolución Libertadora" (1955–1958), the military uprising which overthrew Juan Perón, the PDN fragmented into various parties such as the "Partido Conservador Popular" (PCP), the "Partido Demócrata" and the "Partido Demócrata de Centro".

[4] National Democratic Union (Brazil)

The National Democratic Union (Portuguese: União Democrática Nacional, UDN) was a political party that existed in Brazil between 1945 and 1965. It was ideologically aligned with conservatism. During most of its existence, it was the country's second-strongest party. Its symbol was an Olympic torch.

Even before UDN supported the 1964 Brazilian Coup d'état, opponents of UDN characterized it as a golpista (pro-coups d'état) party. It denounced the "Communist infiltration" in public administration, and strongly opposed government intervention in the economy.The party was marked by binding itself with the Brazilian Army.

[5] National Democratic Party (Egypt)

The National Democratic Party was an Egyptian political party. It was founded by President Anwar Sadat in 1978.The NDP wielded uncontested power in state politics, usually considered a de facto single party with authoritarian characteristics inside an officially multi-party system, from its creation until the resignation of Sadat's successor Hosni Mubarak in response to the Egyptian Revolution of 2011.

[6] National Democratic Movement (Guatemala)

National Democratic Movement (Movimiento Democratico Nacional, MDN) was a Guatemala military-backed party formed in 1954 by President Carlos Castillo Armas. It was the ruling party from 1954 until 1958. The party supported the Government of President Miguel Ydígoras Fuentes (1958-1963). It disbanded after the 1963 coup.

One faction, the National Liberation Movement (MLN), remained a major party of the right wing well into the 1980s. The other faction, the National Reformist Movement, never became a major factor in electoral politics.

[7] National Democratic Party of Liberia

The National Democratic Party of Liberia (NDPL) is a political party in Liberia.

The NDPL was formed in August 1984 by supporters of Samuel Doe, who came to power in a 1980 military coup. The party contested the 15 October 1985 elections with Doe as its presidential candidate. He won 50.93% of the vote in an election marred by allegations of extensive irregularities and electoral fraud. The NDPL dominated both chambers of the Legislature, winning 21 of 26 seats in the Senate and 51 of 64 in the House of Representatives. The party's control of the country ended following the outbreak of the First Liberian Civil War in 1989 and the assassination of Doe in 1990.

[8] National Democracy (Poland)

National Democracy (Polish: Narodowa Demokracja, also known from its abbreviation ND as "Endecja") was a Polish right-wing nationalist political movement active from the latter 19th century to the end of the Second Polish Republic in 1939. A founder and principal ideologue was Roman Dmowski. Other ideological fathers of the movement were Zygmunt Balicki and Jan Ludwik Popławski.

The National Democracy's main stronghold was Greater Poland (western Poland), where much of the movement's early impetus derived from efforts to counter Imperial Germany's policy of Germanizing its Polish territorial holdings. Subsequently a focus of National Democracy interest was countering Polish-Jewish economic competition with Catholic Poles. Party supporters were mostly ethnic-Polish intelligentsia, bourgeoisie, middle class and youth.

During the interbellum Second Republic, National Democracy was a strong advocate for Polonization of the country's German minority and of the non-Polish (chiefly Ukrainian and Belarusian) populations of Poland's eastern Kresy. With the end of World War II, the National Democracy movement effectively ceased to exist.

[9] National Democratic Party (Czechoslovakia)

The Czechoslovak National Democratic Party (Czech: Československá národní demokracie) was a First Republic right-wing political party in Czechoslovakia. The party was established in 1918 by a merger of the Young Czech Party and several smaller parties, and was initially known as the Czech State-Rights Party. It formed the first provisional government led by Karel Kramář, and the following year it was renamed the National Democratic Party.

The 1920 elections saw the party finish sixth with 6% of the vote, whilst the 1925 elections saw its vote share drop to 4% as it finished tenth. The party then began to turn rightwards, and the 1929 resulted in it receiving 5% of the vote. In 1935 the party merged with the National Fascist Community to form the National Union.

[10] National Democratic Party of Lithuania

National Democratic Party of Lithuania (Lithuanian: Lietuvos nacionaldemokratų partija) was a right-wing, nationalist political party in Lithuania. Its last leader was Žilvinas Razminas. The party was established on the January 30, 1999 by the former leader of the Lithuanian National Union, Rimantas Smetona.

According to the official founding LNDP program adopted at the LNDP constituent congress of the January 30, 1999, the Lithuanian National Democratic Party's goal is to strengthen and maintain the Lithuanian people and the independent state of Lithuania, and ensure that the state is rich, secure, and equally fair to all its citizens. The party is guided by the principles of national democracy, an ideology it views as a middle way between anarchism, liberalism, and totalitarianism, which it claims are responsible for Lithuania's growing income disparity and cultural and moral decay.

The party seeks a pragmatic approach to the Lithuanian economy, seeking to maintain and strengthen a free market that is agricultural, supports small and big businesses alike, is modern and competitive in a globalised economy, and encourages investment whilst also maintaining and implementing measures to ensure Lithuanian control over Lithuanian goods, services, and wealth.

Rimantas Smetona and Kazimieras Uoka left the party after it was taken over by anti-semite Mindaugas Murza and his followers. In 2009 the members of the party voted in favour of merging to an ultranationalist Unified Lithuanian National Workers Movement.

[11] National Democratic Party (Nepal)

The Rastriya Prajatantra Party (Nepali: राष्ट्रिय प्रजातन्त्र पार्टी; translation: National Democratic Party) is a Nepalese political party. It is a centre-right, liberal conservative party, formed out of the political elite of the erstwhile Panchayat system, formed on 1990, after reestablishment of democracy in Nepal. It was formerly pro-monarchy, leaving the Rastriya Prajatantra Party-Nepal as the only major monarchist party in Nepal.

[12] National Democratic Alliance (India)

The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is a centre-right coalition of political parties in India. At the time of its formation in 1998, it was led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and had thirteen constituent parties. Its current convener is N. Chandrababu Naidu and honorary chairman is former prime minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Also representing the alliance are L. K. Advani, former deputy prime minister who is the acting chairman of the Alliance, Narendra Modi, current Prime Minister of India and Leader of house in Lok Sabha; Arun Jaitley, Leader of house in the Rajya Sabha . The coalition was in power from 1998 to 2004. From 2004 to 2014 i.e. for a period of 10 years it found its expansion difficult. However, defying what many psephologists predicted, the alliance stormed back to power in the elections held in April/May 2014. Its leader, Narendra Modi was sworn-in Prime Minister of India on 26 May.

[13] National Democratic Party (Italy)

The National Democratic Party (Partito Nazional Democratico) is a minor nationalist and conservative political party in Italy.

It was founded in November 2003 and wants to attract the electorate of the historical Italian Social Movement, National Democracy and the rightist faction of Christian Democracy. It supports the House of Freedoms coalition.

[13] National Democratic Union (Greece)

National Democratic Union was a Greek political party. The party was founded in 1974 by Petros Garoufallias, a former member of the Centre Union. The party was founded in order to represent the royalists.

[14] National Democratic Party (UK, 1966)

The National Democratic Party (NDP) was a right wing political party that operated in the United Kingdom during the 1960s and 1970s. The NDP sought to position itself as an early rival to the National Front although ultimately it failed to challenge the position of this group.

The NDP had existed on paper since the early 1960s as the title was used by Dr David Brown in both the 1964 and 1966 general elections to contest the Ipswich constituency, securing 0.6% and 1.3% of the vote in the respective elections. However this NDP had no existence beyond Brown and it was not until 1966 that a process of formalisation as a proper political party took place.

In 1966, Brown, who was also the chairman of the Racial Preservation Society, proposed to form the NDP by merging the RPS with John Bean's British National Party. However this did not occur as Bean was put off by Brown insisting that the Greater Britain Movement should be excluded from any alliance and that Brown should be sole leader of the new party. Following this Brown entered negotiations with A.K. Chesterton about using the League of Empire Loyalists as the basis for the NDP but this plan was rejected by Chesterton as once again Brown insisted that leadership should lie with him alone. The National Front, effectively a merger between the BNP, LEL and elements of the RPS under Robin Beauclaire followed soon afterwards, with Brown excluded.

Despite this set back the NDP was established officially in 1966 before the NF although critics, particularly from within the NF, argued that Brown only did so as he could not stand the prospect of serving under A. K. Chesterton. Amongst the leading members of the party upon formation was Leslie Eric 'Lutz' Vaughan who had been associated with the National Socialist Movement's Spearhead paramilitary wing and Column 88.

[15] National Democrats (United Kingdom)

The National Democrats (ND) was a nationalist party in the United Kingdom (UK). Former party Chairman Ian Anderson died on 2 February 2011 and the party was de-registered with the Electoral Commission on 10 March 2011.

The party evolved out of the Flag Group wing of the British National Front (NF), which gained control of the NF during the early 1990s. Party leader Ian Anderson sought to change the name of the NF to the National Democrats. 72% of the membership voted for the change in a postal ballot; by changing the name it was hoped to avoid the connotations associated with the NF name. However, the move was resisted by other NF members and so the National Democrats came into existence as a new party.

By the beginning of 2002 the party had ceased political activity. It continued as a pressure group under the name Campaign for National Democracy.

[16] Albanian National Democratic Movement

Albanian National Democratic Movement, known by its Albanian initials as LNDSH or NDSH became an near-total anti-communist resistance in Kosovo between 1945 and 1947. It drew some of its members from among the functionaries of the former pro-Axis Albanian occupation regime.

[17] National Democrats (Ukraine]

There have developed two major movements in the Ukrainian parliament since its independence:

(a) a pro-Western and pro-European general liberal NATIONAL DEMOCRATS who from time to time featured individual politicians with a nationalist past (for example Andriy Shkil, Andriy Parubiy and Levko Lukyanenko) with the Our Ukraine Blocs and Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko (now Fatherland) as its frontrunners; UDAR replaced the Our Ukraine Bloc in the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election. In this bloc may also be included more conservative or radical Ukrainian nationalists who share the broadly pro-western orientation of the liberal parties, primarily represented by All-Ukrainian Union "Svoboda", Congress of Ukrainian Nationalists and People's Movement of Ukraine.

(b) a pro-Russian, latently Eurosceptic, often anti-American and partly anti-liberal group of parties, which in the 1990s was dominated by the Communist Party of Ukraine, and is now dominated by the Party of Regions.

[18] National Democrats (Norway)

The National Democrats (Norwegian: Nasjonaldemokratene) was a Norwegian political party, founded in 2006. In July of 2007, however, the National Democrats merged with the other newly established Norwegian Patriots which ran for office in the 2009 election. Its youth organization was Youth of the National Democrats (Nasjonaldemokratenes Ungdom).

The Norwegian Patriots (Norwegian: NorgesPatriotene, Norwegian abbreviation: NP) was a Norwegian political party whose main aim was to stop non-western immigration to Norway.

[19] Democratic National Union Movement (Cambodia)

The Democratic National Union Movement (DNUM) is a Cambodian political party founded after senior Khmer Rouge official Ieng Sary's defection from the Cambodian National Unity Party in August 1996. A magazine entitled Phka Rik (Flower in Bloom) is associated with it.

It was created primarily to facilitate Ieng Sary's reentry into civilian political life, claiming neutrality and that he had broken away from the Khmer Rouge and from the "fascism and cruelty of Pol Pot's regime," naming Nuon Chea, Ta Mok, Son Sen and Yun Yat as Pol Pot's cohorts and "mass murderers of Cambodia." He stated that he was a supporter of "limited democracy," and named Thailand, Singapore and Japan as examples.

[20] Patriotic and Democratic Front of the Great National Union of Kampuchea

The Patriotic and Democratic Front of the Great National Union of Kampuchea (PDFGNUK) was a Kampuchean mass organization set up by the Communist Party of Kampuchea (popularly known as the Khmer Rouge) on August 21, 1979 after the fall of Democratic Kampuchea to Vietnamese troops and the subsequent proclamation of the People's Republic of Kampuchea. It was set up as a counterpart to the Kampuchean United Front for National Salvation that had been nurtured by the Vietnamese. Its purpose was to rally anti-Vietnamese nationalists to support the Khmer Rouge, as part of an effort to legitimize the discredited Democratic Kampuchea regime. It was announced by Khieu Samphan, who was elected its provisional chairman.

[21] National Democratic Party (Austria)

The National Democratic Party (Nationaldemokratische Partei, NDP) was a far-right political party in Austria from 1967 until 1988 when its status was revoked for violating the country's anti-Nazi legislation.

On 25 June 1988 the NDP was forbidden by a verdict of the Constitutional Court of Austria on the basis of the Verbotsgesetz 1947 and Article 9 of the Austrian State Treaty (Disbandment of Nazi Organisations), revoking its legal capacity as a political party. In its explanatory statement the court determined that the NDP's "Key principles and demands" are based on "biological-racist ideology ("'Volksbegriff'")" and also that its "pan-German Propaganda" is in agreement with the main goals of the NSDAP (Nazi Party).

[22] National Democratic Institute (USA)

The National Democratic Institute for International Affairs (NDI) is an organization created by the United States government by way of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) to channel grants for furthering democracy in developing nations. It was founded in 1983, shortly after the U.S. Congress created the National Endowment for Democracy. Taxpayer funding is provided by the Federal Government, both directly from the United States Agency for International Development and the Department of State and indirectly through the National Endowment for Democracy. Additional funds are raised through voluntary donations from foreign governments, multilateral institutions, and private foundations. It is headquartered in Washington, D.C.

Under its mission, "NDI provides practical assistance to civic and political leaders advancing democratic values, practices and institutions. NDI works with democrats in every region of the world to build political and civic organizations, safeguard elections, and to promote citizen participation, openness and accountability in government". NDI has worked in 125 different countries and territories since it was created and its six main areas of work are citizen participation, election processes, political parties, women in politics, democracy and technology, and democratic governance.

NDI is loosely associated with the Democratic Party of the United States. However, NDI's programs are nonpartisan, and it works with various democratic and non-violent political parties and civic groups. As stated on its website, "NDI does not presume to impose solutions nor does it believe that one democratic system can be replicated elsewhere. Rather, NDI shares experiences and offers a range of options so that leaders can adapt those practices and institutions that may work best in their own political environment".

Critics charge that the term "democracy assistance" and "democracy building" are rhetorically employed to overpower nationalist and socialist resistance to US economic and cultural domination, particularly in Russia.

The Institute regularly researches and releases reports on global democratic political developments in conjunction with think tanks, NGOs, and civic organizations. It also maintains offices in more than 70 countries in Asia, the Former Soviet Union, Latin America, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa.

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